Michael Henninger, Mareike Kehrer, Anna Kutter, Christina Sick, Julia Ummenhofer
In the context of our research, we develop web-based and hybrid learning scenarios for professional learning, e.g. communications skills training for physicians in intensive care. The learning process in those scenarios is based on reflection. To change communicative behaviour communicative skills should be de-automated, changed by reflecting on one’s own action – e.g. understanding utterances – and re-automated again (Henninger & Mandl, 2006). Video is a widely used medium for fostering the reflection process. In the context of computer based training we used the tool CaiManOnLine© as a powerful learning environment for university lectures with emphasis on computer supported learning. In the context of professional learning or further education we have to face the challenge of (lowered) motivation to learn at the workplace or in recreation time. Especially in high risk areas, like intensive care, we have to deal with motivational constraints. As a consequence we need a learning instrument which delivers more motivational power as it could be assumed for web or computer based trainings. Thus we want to focus more on video as a learning format enriched with web or computer based learning potential.
For our hybrid learning scenario we needed an authoring tool to create interactive videos with web based learning functionalities. Available commercial hypervideo-software, for example adivi©, offers features to add further information to digital video in terms of text documents, web links, pictures or other videos. Interactive videos created with adivi© provide learners with the opportunity to jump forth and back in the video time line and find their own path through the presented information in a non-linear way. This way dynamic information presentation is fostered but instruction in hypervideos is limited. Because of the non-linear cause of hypervideos it is not envisaged to lead learners through the learning task. Instructional elements are needed but interaction with adivi©-hypervideo is limited, e.g. there is no option for learners entering text or annotating at a certain point of video.
Therefore we decided to develop a new authoring tool to create interactive instructional videos. The new software CaiMan2.0© shall allow creating videos added with supporting computer or web-based instructional guidance to facilitate reflection based learning. It should be possible to interrupt the course of action shown in the video for analysing the situation and possibly entering text or annotate the scene. To meet these requirements it is possible to program new learning tasks two-dimensionally. Imagine you got two axes, one vertical and one horizontal. On the horizontal axis there is the regular video time line. The learning task-designer can implement instructions alongside the video time line, e.g. insert supportive information fade in and out while video time is running or breakpoints in the video for showing text information. In a one-dimensional programming environment you can only implement one individual instruction at a certain point of the video time line. For consecutive instructions at one certain point in the video you need an additional vertical axis for programming. This second axis allows integrating a cascade of further instructions at one certain point of the video time line. Hereby the video-designers can implement any desired instructions on any point of the video time line.
From learner’s perspective the video just stops and several instructions are shown one after another – e.g. the request to enter a description of the situation shown in the video in a text field followed by an embedded video with an expert’s comment and text-based information. After learners have finished the task the video continues. So while learners perceive all instructions as part of the video time line, video-designers work with two axes to gain more freedom in shaping perceived timing of learning-tasks.
CaiMan2.0© is based on an existing authoring tool and learning environment – CaiManOnLine©. It allows creating hybrid or web-based learning scenarios which address soft or technical skills. As compared to other tools, CaiMan2.0© and the associated learning environment mbase/d/© can be involved platform-independent, different formats of video can be integrated and a non-linear regulation of video-sequences is possible. The videos, so called mbase/d/©-learning applications, combining the functionality of hypervideos with that of a full scale CBT/WBT.
adivi© is a product of InnoTeamS GmbH
CaiManOnLine© is a product of Michael Henninger
CaiMan2.0© is a product of Michael Henninger and teleteach
mbase/d/© is a product of Michael Henninger
Henninger, M. & Mandl, H. (2006). Fostering Reflection in the Training of Speech-Receptive Action. In D. Frey, H. Mandl & L. von Rosenstiel (Ed.), Knowledge and Action (pp. 53-85). Cambridge a.o.: Hogrefe & Huber.